The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Mandarin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-cmn}}, {{IPAc-cmn}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard Chinese phonology for more detail on the sounds of Mandarin Chinese.

Consonants
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese exampleEnglish approximation
ɕxhs晓/曉/xiǎosheep,[a] but more y-like
ff非/fēifan
jy-/-i-牙/yáyes
kgk干/gānskin
kk'口/kǒukin
ll来/來/láileaf
mm明/míngmoon
nnㄋ,ㄣ,ㄢ泥/nínoon
ŋ-ngㄥ,ㄤ江/jiāngsong
pbp帮/幫/bāngspan
pp'滂/pángpan
ʐ[b]r-j日/rìpleasure, but with tongue curled or pulled back
ss私/sīsame
ʂsh矢/shǐshow, but without lip rounding and with tongue curled or pulled back
tdt端/duānstop
tt'透/tòutop
jch叫/jiàocheap,[a] but more y-like (without lip rounding)
tɕʰqch'去/qùAbove, but with a strong burst of breath (aspiration)
tszts子/zǐoutset
tsʰcts'此/cǐlet's help
ʈʂzhch之/zhīcheer, but without lip rounding with tongue curled or pulled back
ʈʂʰchch'吃/chīAbove, but with a strong burst of breath (aspiration)
ww-/-u-我/wǒwater
xh火/huǒloch (Scottish English)
ɥyu-/-ü-[c]yü-/-ü-月/yuèbetween wet and yet
Vowels
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese exampleEnglish approximation
aaㄚ,ㄢ,ㄤ阿,安,盎car
erêrh二,兒(儿)
ɛ~æyan/-ianyen/-ienㄧㄢset or sat
yuan/-üanㄩㄢ
eye/-ie, yue/-üeeh也,月hey
əen,[d] engên, êngㄣ,ㄥ本,冷atop
ɚerêrh二,兒(儿)fern [e]
ɤeê / o[f]between boot and but
iyi/-icity
owo/-uo[g]/-ouo[h]go, but without lip rounding
ɻ̩zhi, chi, shi, riih[i]之,吃,師(师),日Below, but retroflex.[j]
ɹ̩zi, ci, siŭ子,次,私roses, cousin
uwu/-ucool
ʊ-ong-ungㄨㄥ,ㄩㄥ冬,用book
yyu/-ü[c]yü/-übeet, but with the lips rounded as for boot.
Diphthongs
aitime
aosomewhat like out
ei[d]face
ou[d]歐(欧)show
Tones
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese exampleTone numberDescription
áāa1巴/bātone 1high level [˥]
ǎáa2ㄚˊ拔/bátone 2mid rising [˧˥]
àǎa3ㄚˇ把/bǎtone 3medially, low [˩]; initially, mid falling [˧˩]; finally, low rising [˩˧]; in isolation, dipping [˧˩˧]
âàa4ㄚˋ爸/bàtone 4high falling [˥˩]
aaa0˙ㄚ吧/batone 0 or 5
(toneless)
mid [˧] after all tones but 4, where it is low [˩]
Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.

Notes

  1. ^ a b [ɕ, tɕ, tɕʰ] are always followed by [i] [j], [y], or [ɥ].
  2. ^ Also transcribed as ɻ in some literature.
  3. ^ a b ü (/y/) is spelled u after j, q, x in pinyin since /u/ cannot occur after them.
  4. ^ a b c wei, you/yu, wen/wên are spelled respectively ui, iu, un in Pinyin and Wade-Giles but are pronounced identically when they are preceded by a consonant.
  5. ^ The rhotic vowel also appears in erhua.
  6. ^ This sound is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨k, k', h⟩ in Wade-Giles.
  7. ^ This sound is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨b, p, m, f⟩ in Pinyin.
  8. ^ ㄨㄛ is spelled as ⟨o⟩, except for ⟨k, k', h, sh⟩ (as ⟨kuo, k'uo, huo, shuo⟩) in Wade-Giles.
  9. ^ This symbol is rarely used and usually omitted during writing.
  10. ^ Voiced continuants (also transcribed [ɨ, ɯ] or [ʐ̩, z̩]) reflecting the character of the preceding consonant[clarification needed]

References

  • Duanmu, San (2007). The Phonology of Standard Chinese (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (2003). "Standard Chinese (Beijing)" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 109–112. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001208.
  • Lin, Yen-Hwei (2007). The Sounds of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links